Wednesday, June 27, 2007

Black Hole

black hole milkywayA black hole is an object with a gravi tational field so powerful that a region of space becomes cut off from the rest of the universe – no matter or radiation, including visible light, that has entered the region can ever escape. The lack of escaping electromagnetic radiation renders the inside of black holes (beyond the event horizon) invisible, hence the name. However, black holes can be detectable if they interact with matter, e.g. by sucking in gas from an orbiting star. The gas spirals inward, heating up to very high temperatures and emitting large amounts of light, X-rays and Gamma rays in the process while still outside of the event horizon.[2][3][4] Black holes are also thought to emit a weak form of thermal energy called Hawking radiation.[5][6][7]

While the idea of an object with gravity strong enough to prevent light from escaping was proposed in the 18th century, black holes as presently understood are described by Einstein's theory of general relativity, developed in 1916. This theory predicts that when a large enough amount of mass is present within a sufficiently small region of space, all paths through space are warped inwards towards the center of the volume. When an object is compressed enough for this to occur, collapse is unavoidable (it would take infinite strength to resist collapsing into a black hole). When an object passes within the event horizon at the boundary of the black hole, it is lost forever (it would take an infinite amount of effort for an object to climb out from inside the hole). Although the object would be reduced to a singularity, the information it carries is not lost (see the black hole information paradox).

While general relativity describes a black hole as a region of empty space with a pointlike singularity at the center and an event horizon at the outer edge, the description changes when the effects of quantum mechanics are taken into account. The final, correct description of black holes, requiring a theory of quantum gravity, is unknown.


blackholeIt is now believed that at the center of each galaxy there is a super-massive black hole that is millions to billions of times heavier than our sun. The massive black hole captures nearby stars and drags them into a swirling accretion disk. A "torus" in the inner accretion shields the black hole in those systems that are viewed edge on (which is probably the case for our galactic center). In many of these systems (which are called AGN = active galactic nucleus), a jet is ejected perpendicular to the disk and is seen in the optical and radio wavebands. In the very central regions the disk becomes so hot (tens of millions of degrees) that the emission is in the X-ray and Gamma-ray bands. This animation shows an artist's impression of the view from an approaching spaceship. The HEASARC data archives contain many observations of these systems made with orbiting X-ray and Gamma-ray observatories.

Tuesday, June 26, 2007


tikbalangAn untrusting skittishness is prevalent among the communites surrounding the mountainous regions of the King Filipinas archipelago. The skewed, furtive glances exchanged when family members ask to be accompanied somewhere are a habit formed from fear of the Tikbalang. Often eerily mimicking the appearance of victims' relatives, this forest spirit will lead lone people out to the heavily wooded depths of the mountain ranges, occasionally breaking the increasingly uncomfortable silence with short bursts of reassurement, and stilted gratitude for the assistance. The suddenly pungent aroma of tobacco and drunken swaying motion adopted by the false family member is noticed before their face blurs into something that resembles more that of a horse's than a human's. Delirious town folk who have stumbled their way into town after long absences tell of how this apparation pushed and slapped them, often knocking them over and not allowing them to right themselves; all the while shaking with nervous, childish giggling. People say that the cessation of resistance or protest will suddenly lead a victim to find themselves alone in the woods, plunged into darkness; the sun long set. The path home, recalled by the few who return after a disappearance, is hampered by a severe sense of disorientation and a forest that seems to curl in on itself repeatedly.

Friday, June 8, 2007

Bermuda Triangle

bermuda triangleThe U. S. Board of Geographic Names does not recognize the Bermuda Triangle as an official name and does not maintain an official file on the area.

The "Bermuda or Devil's Triangle" is an imaginary area located off the southeastern Atlantic coast of the United States, which is noted for a high incidence of unexplained losses of ships, small boats, and aircraft. The apexes of the triangle are generally accepted to be Bermuda, Miami, Fla., and San Juan, Puerto Rico.

In the past, extensive, but futile Coast Guard searches prompted by search and rescue cases such as the disappearances of an entire squadron of TBM Avengers shortly after take off from Fort Lauderdale, Fla., or the traceless sinking of USS Cyclops and Marine Sulphur Queen have lent credence to the popular belief in the mystery and the supernatural qualities of the "Bermuda Triangle."

Countless theories attempting to explain the many disappearances have been offered throughout the history of the area. The most practical seem to be environmental and those citing human error. The majority of disappearances can be attributed to the area's unique environmental features. First, the "Devil's Triangle" is one of the two places on earth that a magnetic compass does point towards true north. Normally it points toward magnetic north. The difference between the two is known as compass variation. The amount of variation changes by as much as 20 degrees as one circumnavigates the earth. If this compass variation or error is not compensated for, a navigator could find himself far off course and in deep trouble.

An area called the "Devil's Sea" by Japanese and Filipino seamen, located off the east coast of Japan, also exhibits the same magnetic characteristics. It is also known for its mysterious disappearances.

Another environmental factor is the character of the Gulf Stream. It is extremely swift and turbulent and can quickly erase any evidence of a disaster. The unpredictable Caribbean-Atlantic weather pattern also plays its role. Sudden local thunder storms and water spouts often spell disaster for pilots and mariners.

Finally, the topography of the ocean floor varies from extensive shoals around the islands to some of the deepest marine trenches in the world. With the interaction of the strong currents over the many reefs the topography is in a state of constant flux and development of new navigational hazards is swift.Not to be under estimated is the human error factor. A large number of pleasure boats travel the waters between Florida's Gold Coast and the Bahamas. All too often, crossings are attempted with too small a boat, insufficient knowledge of the area's hazards, and a lack of good seamanship.

The Coast Guard, and most other official sources are not impressed with supernatural explanations of disasters at sea. It has been their experience that the combined forces of nature and unpredictability of mankind outdo even the most far fetched science fiction many times each year.

Major source of information: The U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters and the Naval Historical Center.


Wednesday, June 6, 2007

Life in the Abyss

Beneath the Ocean floor there are a lot of diversified creatures spreading on the whole three-fourth (¾) parts of the earth, and it’s the Ocean, a very huge component of the mother Earth. How can we say that all of the creatures under the Ocean have seen by all of us? Neither the expert marines nor professionals in the field of aquatic research have seen all of the creatures in the sea. On the other hand, due to the intelligence and perseverance of some people on this field, few of the amazing sea creatures found. I was very stunned the way they discover new things and I consider this as one of my fulfillment. Thanks to them.

w34thumbTalk about all mouth. Eurypharynx pelecanoides, known e223thumbcolloquially as the "umbrellamouth gulper," throws wide its loosely hinged jaws and balloons out its mouth to engulf hapless fishes, which are deposited in the pouchlike lower jaw (hence its common name, pelican eel). Though a fearsome-looking creature, the pelican eel is only two feet long, including the whiplike tail. It lives in all the world's oceans at depths exceeding 6,500 feet.

w50thumbIn this image, the anglerfish Melanocetus johnsoni not only looks like a basketball, it looks like it could swallow one. Perhaps impressed by its rounded aspect, the scientist describing this ball of a fish even gave it a generic name that means "black whale." Yet appearances can be deceiving. For all its ferocious aspect, the "common black-devil," as this species is known, reaches a maximum length of five inches.

The viperfish, Chauliodus sloani, has such lengthy lower fangs that they don't even fit in its w25thumbmouth, but rather project back dangerously close to the eyes. No Chauliodus has ever been photographed in its natural habitat, but a scientist who saw one from the window of his bathyscaph off Portugal reported that it hovered "head upwards, the long axis of its body making an angle of about 45° to the horizontal plane. The whiplike dorsal ray was inclined forwards so that the tip dangled in front of the mouth. Here, surely, is good circumstantial evidence for deep-sea angling."

w62thumbIt's not hard to see why the common name of Anoplogaster cornuta is "fangtooth." (It has also been dubbed "ogrefish.") In this species, juveniles differ so strikingly from adults that it took 50 years for fish biologists to realize that Anoplogaster and a genus they were calling Caulolepsis were one and the same animal, just of different ages. Fangtooths (or should we say "fangteeth"?) are found in tropical and temperate waters down to 16,000 feet.

w31thumbYou wouldn't want to meet a hungry Saccopharynx lavenbergi in the depths. These babies can reach six feet in length, have rows of sharp little teeth, and, like pythons of the deep, can swallow prey much fatter than themselves. They down victims whole, of course, which is why they're called "gulpers." They simply ease them through their "sack-gullet" (hence the term Saccopharynx) and into their stomach, where digestion takes over.

e265thumb"No, it can't be," might be your first reaction on seeing the deep-sea anglerfish Linophryne arborifera, whose genus name means "toad that fishes with a net" (which shows you how baffled scientists were initially, too). In this species, both the pearl-onion bulb atop the head and the hanging garden of bioluminescent filaments below glow as a lure to unsuspecting prey, which meet a nasty end in its ferociously fanged jaws. As artist Richard Ellis points out, this coal-black fish would surely be considered "one of the most horrifying of sea monsters" were it not the size of a baby's fist.

It's hard to say which is more fantastic, the fish or its name. Grammatostomias flagellibarba, whose name means "lined stomiatid with a whip-barbel," is only six inches long, but its chin barbel can be six feet in length. As if such an absurd appendage were not enough to impress friends and enemies alike, this fanged freak of the deep, with its double row of luminously blue-violet organs running down its flanks, can light up like nature's stab at a spaceship.

e178thumbFor its size, the "vampire squid from hell," Vampyroteuthis infernalis, has the largest eyes of any animal. A six-inch specimen bears globular eyeballs the size of a large dog's. Such impressive orbs, coupled with its winglike fins and its ability to turn on and off at will a constellation of photophores -- tiny lights all over its body -- help this dark-bodied beast find prey at the lightless depths at which it lives, more than 3,000 feet down.

Biologists have gone to great lengths to describe the long-nosed chimaera, Harriotta raleighana, whose kind can reach five feet ine202thumb length. Its stiletto-like nose reminded one of "the nose contour of a supersonic jet aircraft." Others have dubbed it "rattail," for obvious reasons. In South Africa, it is known as the "ghost shark," though it is only distantly related to sharks. A touch of the venomous spine on the first dorsal fin can kill a person, though such a fate is unlikely given the 8,000-foot depths at which this creature lives.

e269thumbCaulophryne polynema translates as "stalked toad with many filaments," but with its quill-like fin rays it looks more like some piscine porcupine. The type specimen of this deep-sea angler was hauled up by Madeira fishermen, who found a black, eight-inch-long fish with a belly so distended that it seemed the fish had swallowed an orange. Poking from the fish's mouth was the tail of a significantly larger fish, which was somehow attracted by this fearsome-looking fish, possibly by the delicately plumed lure adorning its forehead.

With a face only a mother could love, Himantolophus e277thumbgroenlandicus looks like a middle linebacker for the Pittsburgh Steelers, which may have something to do with how it got its common name, the "footballfish." The species holds pride of place as the first deep-sea angler ever found. The original specimen washed ashore in Greenland in 1833; at 22 inches long, it is still the largest one on record. Since no females of this species have ever been found bearing parasitic males, biologists assume they are fertilized by free-swimming mates.

e280thumbOnce called "a grotesque among grotesques," Lasiognathus saccostoma has an overbite to end all overbites. Yet this three-inch-long fish has also been called "the compleat angler of the abyss," for it comes equipped with nature's equivalent of a fishing rod, complete with lure and three bony hooks. Though the precise function of this contraption is unknown, the undersea explorer William Beebe suggested in 1930 that it might be "cast swiftly ahead, when the hooks and lights would so frighten any pursued fish that they would hesitate long enough to be engulfed in the onrushing maw."

In the bituminous blackness of the deep sea, what an alluring sight to a fish must be thee282thumb luminescent organ dangling from the toothy jaws of Thaumatichthys axeli, "Prince Axel's wonder-fish." The first specimen of this black, 18-inch bottom-dweller was trawled from a depth of 11,778 feet in the Atlantic by the Galathea expedition of 1950-52. The voyage's chronicler deemed the find "unquestionably the strangest catch of the Galathea expedition, and altogether one of the oddest creatures in the teeming variety of the fish world."

e287thumbIts telescopic eyes and pair of elongated tail rays, which triple its overall length to almost three feet, have gained Stylephorus chordatus two common names, "tube-eye" and "thread-tail." Yet striking as they are, these features hold nothing on the mouth. This balloonable cavity can expand to 38 times its original size as the fish sucks in seawater through its tubular mouth, as if through a straw. Once filled, the mouth closes and the fish forces the water back out through its gills, leaving behind a meal of plankton.

Looking like an artist's conception of the tree of life, the basket starfish e151thumbGorgonocephalus arcticus is found from the Arctic to Cape Cod at depths reaching 4,000 feet. It belongs to the family Gorgonocephalidae ("Gorgon-headed"), which is named after the snake-haired sisters of Greek mythology. Reaching some 20 inches across, the basket star snags plankton in its canopy of branching arms and ushers them to its mouth on the underside of the center disk.

Monday, June 4, 2007

Are we alone???

alien 1 Before the existence of a human form on earth, it is said that there is an existence of other life form in the galaxy. Galaxy has been comprises of Billions of counts in the entire Universe. Just imagine how big the galaxy was and thus the Universe could have been limitless in wide. On the other hand, every galaxy could contain a life form other than the human beings, and these are we known as Extra Terrestrials or Aliens. Many astronomers and some famous researcher believed on their existence and they were claiming that the life of an ET or an Alien more advance than ours. It is my interest to discover more related to the other life form in the Universe and I was really relying to some person here on earth that are keen to discover such diversified facts and bring out more evidences and truths beyond this very interesting topic.

I got some citations prior to the existence of an Alien and it was published on this site ( I have grabbed some citations for you to read.

guardian earth thumb "In my mind, there is no question that they're out there. My Career is well established. My texts books are required reading in all the major capitals on planet earth. If you want to become a physist to learn about the unified feild therory-you read my books. Therefore, I'm in a position to say: Yes- Most likely they're out their, perhaps even visted, perhaps on our moon. - ABC News Quote -- -- Professor Michio Kaku Author of Theoretical Physics UNY

"I've been convinced for a long time that the flying saucers are real and interplanetary. Another words we are being watched by beings from outer space."--Albert M. Chop, deputy public relations director, National Aeronautics and Space Administration,(NASA) and former United States Air Force spokesman for Project Blue Book.

flying saucer"When the long awaited solution to the UFO problem comes, I believe that it will prove to be not merely the next small step in the march of science, but a mighty and totally unexpected quantum leap." "We had a job to do, whether right or wrong, to keep the public from getting excited"--Dr.J Allen Hynek, Director US Air Force´s project Blue Book as a scientific consultant, astronomer, investigator and analysis.

"Of course it is possible that UFO's really do contain aliens as many people believe, and the Government is hushing it up."--Professor Stephen Hawking

"Given the millions of billions of Earth-like planets, life elsewhere in the Universe without a doubt, does exist. In the vastness of the Universe we are not alone."--The Bible According to Albert Einstein

two aliens thumbbelieve, and I scientifically am certain, that there are endless other living forms out there, including intelligent sentient beings. I do know that there are entire universes of living forms out there. --Dr.Story Musgrave NASA scientist-astronaut

I believe that these extraterrestrial vehicles and their crews are visiting this planet from other planets which obviously are a little more technically advanced than we are here on Earth." --Colonel L. Gordon Cooper (Mercury 9, Gemini-5 Astronaut)

ufo"All Apollo and Gemini flights were followed, both at a distance and sometimes also quite closely, by space vehicles of extraterrestrial origin - flying saucers, or UFOs, if you want to call them by that name. Every time it occurred, the astronauts informed Mission Control, who then ordered absolute silence." --Maurice Chatelain, former chief of NASA Communications Systems.

When asked if he believed that UFO's were real;"Yes as a matter of fact I do." He was also asked if he had ever seen a UFO and he said he had, on his Gemini mission. He went on to say that he tried to take a picture of it, but it did not come out.--Brigadier Gen. James Mc Divitt command pilot of the Gemini space craft. (This interview can be seen on a video tape called Beyond Belief, from United Entertainment, Inc. 1986.)

"I was testing a P-51 fighter in Minneapolis when I spotted this object. I was at about 10,000 feet on a nice, bright, sunny afternoon. I thought the object was a kite, then I realized that no kite is gonna fly that high." As I got closer it looked like a weather balloon, gray and about three feet in diameter. But as soon as I got behind the darn thing it didn't look like a balloon anymore. It looked like a saucer, a disk. About the same time, I realized that it was suddenly going away from me -- and there I was, running at about 300 miles per hour. I tracked it for a little way, and then all of a sudden the damn thing just took off. It pulled about a 45 degree climbing turn and accelerated and just flat disappeared." --Mercury Astronaut Capt. Donald Slayton

"Let there be no doubt. Alien technology harvested from the infamous saucer crash in Roswell, N.Mex., in July 1947 led directly to the development of the integrated circuit chip, laser and fiber optic technologies, Particle beams, Electromagnetic propulsion systems, Depleted uranium projectiles, Stealth capabilities, and many others! How do I know? I was in charge! (A matter of public record)I think the kids on this planet are wise to the truth, and I think we ought to give it to them. I think they deserve it.--Colonel Philip Corso Army Intelligence officer, former head of the Foreign Technology at the U.S. Army's Research and Development department at the Pentagon. Four years director of intelligence on President Eisenhower's White House National Security Staff


alien night visitor old grey small alien image